No Comments 作者:小项-怪物猪 分类:Ubuntu,FreeBSD,临时文件

格式.ab [options] [http://]hostname[:port]/path
参数
-n requests Number of requests to perform
//在测试会话中所执行的请求个数。默认时,仅执行一个请求
-c concurrency Number of multiple requests to make
//一次产生的请求个数。默认是一次一个。
-t timelimit Seconds to max. wait for responses
//测试所进行的最大秒数。其内部隐含值是-n 50000。它可以使对服务器的测试限制在一个固定的总时间以内。默认时,没有时间限制。
-p postfile File containing data to POST
//包含了需要POST的数据的文件.
-T content-type Content-type header for POSTing
//POST数据所使用的Content-type头信息。
-v verbosity How much troubleshooting info to print
//设置显示信息的详细程度 - 4或更大值会显示头信息, 3或更大值可以显示响应代码(404, 200等), 2或更大值可以显示警告和其他信息。 -V 显示版本号并退出。
-w Print out results in HTML tables
//以HTML表的格式输出结果。默认时,它是白色背景的两列宽度的一张表。
-i Use HEAD instead of GET
// 执行HEAD请求,而不是GET。
-x attributes String to insert as table attributes
//
-y attributes String to insert as tr attributes
//
-z attributes String to insert as td or th attributes
//
-C attribute Add cookie, eg. ‘Apache=1234. (repeatable)
//-C cookie-name=value 对请求附加一个Cookie:行。 其典型形式是name=value的一个参数对。此参数可以重复。
-H attribute Add Arbitrary header line, eg. ‘Accept-Encoding: gzip’
Inserted after all normal header lines. (repeatable)
-A attribute Add Basic WWW Authentication, the attributes
are a colon separated username and password.
-P attribute Add Basic Proxy Authentication, the attributes
are a colon separated username and password.
//-P proxy-auth-username:password 对一个中转代理提供BASIC认证信任。用户名和密码由一个:隔开,并以base64编码形式发送。无论服务器是否需要(即, 是否发送了401认证需求代码),此字符串都会被发送。
-X proxy:port Proxyserver and port number to use
-V Print version number and exit
-k Use HTTP KeepAlive feature
-d Do not show percentiles served table.
-S Do not show confidence estimators and warnings.
-g filename Output collected data to gnuplot format file.
-e filename Output CSV file with percentages served
-h Display usage information (this message)
//-attributes 设置 属性的字符串. 缺陷程序中有各种静态声明的固定长度的缓冲区。另外,对命令行参数、服务器的响应头和其他外部输入的解析也很简单,这可能会有不良后果。它没有完整地实现 HTTP/1.x; 仅接受某些’预想’的响应格式。 strstr(3)的频繁使用可能会带来性能问题,即, 你可能是在测试ab而不是服务器的性能。

参数很多,一般我们用 -c 和 -n 参数就可以了. 例如:

打开cmd,输入 以下代码。

cd C:\Apache2.2\bin

ab -n 1000 -c 100 http://zf.guqin.com/index/index

这个表示同时处理100个请求并运行1000次index.php文件。以下是打印出来的内容。
This is ApacheBench, Version 2.0.41-dev <$Revision: 1.121.2.12 $> apache-2.0
Copyright (c) 1996 Adam Twiss, Zeus Technology Ltd, http://www.zeustech.net/
Copyright (c) 1998-2002 The Apache Software Foundation, http://www.apache.org/

Benchmarking 127.0.0.1 (be patient)
Completed 100 requests
Completed 200 requests
Completed 300 requests
Completed 400 requests
Completed 500 requests
Completed 600 requests
Completed 700 requests
Completed 800 requests
Completed 900 requests
Finished 1000 requests
Server Software: Apache/2.2.8
//平台apache 版本2.2.8
Server Hostname: zf.guqin.com
//服务器主机名
Server Port: 80
//服务器端口

Document Path: /index.php
//测试的页面文档
Document Length: 1018 bytes
//文档大小

Concurrency Level: 1000
//并发数
Time taken for tests: 8.188731 seconds
//整个测试持续的时间
Complete requests: 1000
//完成的请求数量
Failed requests: 0
//失败的请求数量
Write errors: 0

Total transferred: 1361581 bytes
//整个场景中的网络传输量
HTML transferred: 1055666 bytes
//整个场景中的HTML内容传输量
Requests per second: 122.12 [#/sec] (mean)
//大家最关心的指标之一,相当于 LR 中的每秒事务数,后面括号中的 mean 表示这是一个平均值
Time per request: 8188.731 [ms] (mean)
//大家最关心的指标之二,相当于 LR 中的平均事务响应时间,后面括号中的 mean 表示这是一个平均值
Time per request: 8.189 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests)
//每个请求实际运行时间的平均值
Transfer rate: 162.30 [Kbytes/sec] received
//平均每秒网络上的流量,可以帮助排除是否存在网络流量过大导致响应时间延长的问题

Connection Times (ms)
min mean[+/-sd] median max
Connect: 4 646 1078.7 89 3291
Processing: 165 992 493.1 938 4712
Waiting: 118 934 480.6 882 4554
Total: 813 1638 1338.9 1093 7785
//网络上消耗的时间的分解,各项数据的具体算法还不是很清楚

Percentage of the requests served within a certain time (ms)
50% 1093
66% 1247
75% 1373
80% 1493
90% 4061
95% 4398
98% 5608
99% 7368
100% 7785 (longest request)
//整个场景中所有请求的响应情况。在场景中每个请求都有一个响应时间,其中50%的用户响应时间小于1093 毫秒,60% 的用户响应时间小于1247 毫秒,最大的响应时间小于7785 毫秒

由于对于并发请求,cpu实际上并不是同时处理的,而是按照每个请求获得的时间片逐个轮转处理的,所以基本上第一个Time per request时间约等于第二个Time per request时间乘以并发请求数。

No Comments 作者:小项-怪物猪 分类:FreeBSD,临时文件


#
# GENERIC -- Generic kernel configuration file for FreeBSD/i386
#
# For more information on this file, please read the config(5) manual page,
# and/or the handbook section on Kernel Configuration Files:
#
#    http://www.FreeBSD.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig-config.html
#
# The handbook is also available locally in /usr/share/doc/handbook
# if you've installed the doc distribution, otherwise always see the
# FreeBSD World Wide Web server (http://www.FreeBSD.org/) for the
# latest information.
#
# An exhaustive list of options and more detailed explanations of the
# device lines is also present in the ../../conf/NOTES and NOTES files.
# If you are in doubt as to the purpose or necessity of a line, check first
# in NOTES.
#
# $FreeBSD: src/sys/i386/conf/GENERIC,v 1.519.2.12.2.1 2010/12/21 17:09:25 kensmith Exp $

#cpu		I486_CPU
cpu		I586_CPU
#cpu		I686_CPU
ident		GENERIC              // 内核标识,没什么特殊意义『搜来的,我也不懂』

# To statically compile in device wiring instead of /boot/device.hints
#hints		"GENERIC.hints"		# Default places to look for devices.

# Use the following to compile in values accessible to the kernel
# through getenv() (or kenv(1) in userland). The format of the file
# is 'variable=value', see kenv(1)
#
# env		"GENERIC.env"

makeoptions	DEBUG=-g		# Build kernel with gdb(1) debug symbols	// Debug 的什么东西

options 	SCHED_ULE		# ULE scheduler					// ULE调度
options 	PREEMPTION		# Enable kernel thread preemption		// 启用内核线程抢占
options 	INET			# InterNETworking				// IPV4 的网络
options 	INET6			# IPv6 communications protocols			// IPV6 的什么东西
options 	SCTP			# Stream Control Transmission Protocol		// 流控制传输协议
options 	FFS			# Berkeley Fast Filesystem			// Berkeley 快速文件系统
options 	SOFTUPDATES		# Enable FFS soft updates support		// 启用 FFS 软件更新支持
options 	UFS_ACL			# Support for access control lists		// 启用访问列表控制
options 	UFS_DIRHASH		# Improve performance on big directories	// 改进大目录的支持效果
options 	UFS_GJOURNAL		# Enable gjournal-based UFS journaling		// UFS 的日志
options 	MD_ROOT			# MD is a potential root device			// 根设备文件
options 	NFSCLIENT		# Network Filesystem Client			// 网络文件系统客户端
options 	NFSSERVER		# Network Filesystem Server			// 网络文件系统服务端
options 	NFSLOCKD		# Network Lock Manager				// 网络锁定管理器
options 	NFS_ROOT		# NFS usable as /, requires NFSCLIENT		// NFS 为根目录,需要 NFSCLIENT 支持
options 	MSDOSFS			# MSDOS Filesystem				// MSDOS 文件系统
options 	CD9660			# ISO 9660 Filesystem				// 光盘文件系统
options 	PROCFS			# Process filesystem (requires PSEUDOFS)	// 进程文件系统『需要 PSEUDOFS 支持』
options 	PSEUDOFS		# Pseudo-filesystem framework			// 伪文件系统框架
options 	GEOM_PART_GPT		# GUID Partition Tables.			// GUID 分区表
options 	GEOM_LABEL		# Provides labelization				// 什么标签吧 {待定}
options 	COMPAT_43TTY		# BSD 4.3 TTY compat (sgtty)			// BSD 4.3 的 TTY 支持
options 	COMPAT_FREEBSD4		# Compatible with FreeBSD4			// 兼容 FreeBSD4
options 	COMPAT_FREEBSD5		# Compatible with FreeBSD5			// 兼容 FreeBSD5
options 	COMPAT_FREEBSD6		# Compatible with FreeBSD6			// 兼容 FreeBSD6
options 	COMPAT_FREEBSD7		# Compatible with FreeBSD7			// 兼容 FreeBSD7
options 	SCSI_DELAY=5000		# Delay (in ms) before probing SCSI		// 延迟(毫秒),然后探测SCSI
options 	KTRACE			# ktrace(1) support				// 允许调试跟踪内存单元
options 	STACK			# stack(9) support				// stack 支持
options 	SYSVSHM			# SYSV-style shared memory			// SYSV 形式的内存共享
options 	SYSVMSG			# SYSV-style message queues			// SYSV 形式的消息列队
options 	SYSVSEM			# SYSV-style semaphores				// SYSV 信号灯??
options 	P1003_1B_SEMAPHORES	# POSIX-style semaphores			// POSIX 信号灯??
options 	_KPOSIX_PRIORITY_SCHEDULING # POSIX P1003_1B real-time extensions	// POSIX 的 P1003_1B 实施扩展
options 	PRINTF_BUFR_SIZE=128	# Prevent printf output being interspersed.	// 防止 print 输出被怎么滴
options 	KBD_INSTALL_CDEV	# install a CDEV entry in /dev			// 安装 CDEV 到 /dev
options 	HWPMC_HOOKS		# Necessary kernel hooks for hwpmc(4)		// hwpcm 的关于内核的东西
options 	AUDIT			# Security event auditing			// 安全事件审计
options 	MAC			# TrustedBSD MAC Framework			// 可信任的 MAC 框架
options 	FLOWTABLE		# per-cpu routing cache				// cpu 的什么缓存吧
#options 	KDTRACE_HOOKS		# Kernel DTrace hooks				// 内核的 Dtree 钩子
options 	INCLUDE_CONFIG_FILE     # Include this file in kernel			// 包含这个内核文件

options 	KDB			# Kernel debugger related code			// 内核调试器相关代码
options 	KDB_TRACE		# Print a stack trace for a panic		// print什么的

# To make an SMP kernel, the next two lines are needed
options 	SMP			# Symmetric MultiProcessor Kernel		// 多核处理器的内核支持吧
device		apic			# I/O APIC					// APIC 什么的

# CPU frequency control							CPU频率控制
device		cpufreq									// CPU频率控制

# Bus support.								总线控制
device		acpi
device		eisa
device		pci

# Floppy drives								软驱驱动
device		fdc									// 一般没什么机器还配置软驱了,注释掉好了

# ATA and ATAPI devices		ATA和ATAPI设备
device		ata
device		atadisk		# ATA disk drives					// ATA 磁盘驱动器
device		ataraid		# ATA RAID drives					// ATA RAID 驱动器
device		atapicd		# ATAPI CDROM drives					// ATAPI CD - ROM 驱动器
device		atapifd		# ATAPI floppy drives					// ATAPI 软盘驱动器
device		atapist		# ATAPI tape drives					// ATAPI 磁带机
options 	ATA_STATIC_ID	# Static device numbering				// 静态设备编号

# SCSI Controllers							SCSI 控制器
device		ahb		# EISA AHA1742 family					// EISA AHA1742 系列
device		ahc		# AHA2940 and onboard AIC7xxx devices			// AHA2940 和 AIC7xxx 驱动
options 	AHC_REG_PRETTY_PRINT	# Print register bitfields in debug
					# output.  Adds ~128k to driver.		// 打印什么东西的
device		ahd		# AHA39320/29320 and onboard AIC79xx devices		// AHA39320/29320 和 AIC79xx 驱动
options 	AHD_REG_PRETTY_PRINT	# Print register bitfields in debug
					# output.  Adds ~215k to driver.		// 给出容易阅读的寄存器值,用于帮助调试 『搜索来的』
device		amd		# AMD 53C974 (Tekram DC-390(T))
device		hptiop		# Highpoint RocketRaid 3xxx series
device		isp		# Qlogic family
#device		ispfw		# Firmware for QLogic HBAs- normally a module		// 什么的模块
device		mpt		# LSI-Logic MPT-Fusion
#device		ncr		# NCR/Symbios Logic
device		sym		# NCR/Symbios Logic (newer chipsets + those of `ncr')
device		trm		# Tekram DC395U/UW/F DC315U adapters

device		adv		# Advansys SCSI adapters				// Advansys SCSI适配器
device		adw		# Advansys wide SCSI adapters				// 加了一个 wide 就有点不懂了,应该是SCSI适配器相关的 ???
device		aha		# Adaptec 154x SCSI adapters				// 154x 的 SCSI 适配器 ???
device		aic		# Adaptec 15[012]x SCSI adapters, AIC-6[23]60.		// 15[012]x 的 SCSI 适配器 ???
device		bt		# Buslogic/Mylex MultiMaster SCSI adapters		// 多重 SCSI 适配器 ???

device		ncv		# NCR 53C500						// 应该是某种特定设备的驱动支持
device		nsp		# Workbit Ninja SCSI-3					// 同上
device		stg		# TMC 18C30/18C50					// 同上

# SCSI peripherals		SCSI 外设
device		scbus		# SCSI bus (required for SCSI)				// SCSI 总线 『必须』
device		ch		# SCSI media changers					// SCSI 介质什么的
device		da		# Direct Access (disks)					// 主通道 『磁盘』
device		sa		# Sequential Access (tape etc)				// 次要通道 『磁带等』
device		cd		# CD
device		pass		# Passthrough device (direct SCSI access)		// 磁盘类的
device		ses		# SCSI Environmental Services (and SAF-TE)		// 磁盘类的

# RAID controllers interfaced to the SCSI subsystem			RAID控制器接口的SCSI子系统
device		amr		# AMI MegaRAID
device		arcmsr		# Areca SATA II RAID
device		asr		# DPT SmartRAID V, VI and Adaptec SCSI RAID
device		ciss		# Compaq Smart RAID 5*
device		dpt		# DPT Smartcache III, IV - See NOTES for options
device		hptmv		# Highpoint RocketRAID 182x
device		hptrr		# Highpoint RocketRAID 17xx, 22xx, 23xx, 25xx
device		iir		# Intel Integrated RAID
device		ips		# IBM (Adaptec) ServeRAID
device		mly		# Mylex AcceleRAID/eXtremeRAID
device		twa		# 3ware 9000 series PATA/SATA RAID

# RAID controllers							RAID 控制器
device		aac		# Adaptec FSA RAID
device		aacp		# SCSI passthrough for aac (requires CAM)
device		ida		# Compaq Smart RAID
device		mfi		# LSI MegaRAID SAS
device		mlx		# Mylex DAC960 family
device		pst		# Promise Supertrak SX6000
device		twe		# 3ware ATA RAID

# atkbdc0 controls both the keyboard and the PS/2 mouse			键盘鼠标什么的
device		atkbdc		# AT keyboard controller				// 键盘控制器
device		atkbd		# AT keyboard						// 键盘
device		psm		# PS/2 mouse						// 鼠标

device		kbdmux		# keyboard multiplexer					// 多键盘支持

device		vga		# VGA video card driver					// 显卡支持

device		splash		# Splash screen and screen saver support		// 背景、屏保支持

# syscons is the default console driver, resembling an SCO console
device		sc

device		agp		# support several AGP chipsets				// 多种AGP芯片组支持

# Power management support (see NOTES for more options)			电源管理支持
#device		apm
# Add suspend/resume support for the i8254.						// i8254 的支持
device		pmtimer

# PCCARD (PCMCIA) support						PCCARD(PCMCIA)支持
# PCMCIA and cardbus bridge support					PCMCIA和总线卡的支持
device		cbb		# cardbus (yenta) bridge				// 总线
device		pccard		# PC Card (16-bit) bus					// 16位
device		cardbus		# CardBus (32-bit) bus					// 32位

# Serial (COM) ports							串口设备
device		uart		# Generic UART driver					// 通用驱动

# Parallel port								并口设备
device		ppc
device		ppbus		# Parallel port bus (required)				// 并口总线 『必须』
device		lpt		# Printer						// 并口打印驱动
device		plip		# TCP/IP over parallel					// TCP/IP 相关的
device		ppi		# Parallel port interface device			// 并口设备
#device		vpo		# Requires scbus and da					// 不懂的

# If you've got a "dumb" serial or parallel PCI card that is
# supported by the puc(4) glue driver, uncomment the following
# line to enable it (connects to sio, uart and/or ppc drivers):
#device		puc									// 还是不懂 默认就行了吧

# PCI Ethernet NICs.							PCI以太网网卡
device		de		# DEC/Intel DC21x4x (``Tulip'')
device		em		# Intel PRO/1000 Gigabit Ethernet Family
device		igb		# Intel PRO/1000 PCIE Server Gigabit Family
device		ixgb		# Intel PRO/10GbE Ethernet Card
device		le		# AMD Am7900 LANCE and Am79C9xx PCnet
device		ti		# Alteon Networks Tigon I/II gigabit Ethernet
device		txp		# 3Com 3cR990 (``Typhoon'')
device		vx		# 3Com 3c590, 3c595 (``Vortex'')

# PCI Ethernet NICs that use the common MII bus controller code.	PCI以太网网卡,使用共同的MII总线控制器
# NOTE: Be sure to keep the 'device miibus' line in order to use these NICs!
device		miibus		# MII bus support
device		ae		# Attansic/Atheros L2 FastEthernet
device		age		# Attansic/Atheros L1 Gigabit Ethernet
device		alc		# Atheros AR8131/AR8132 Ethernet
device		ale		# Atheros AR8121/AR8113/AR8114 Ethernet
device		bce		# Broadcom BCM5706/BCM5708 Gigabit Ethernet
device		bfe		# Broadcom BCM440x 10/100 Ethernet
device		bge		# Broadcom BCM570xx Gigabit Ethernet
device		dc		# DEC/Intel 21143 and various workalikes
device		et		# Agere ET1310 10/100/Gigabit Ethernet
device		fxp		# Intel EtherExpress PRO/100B (82557, 82558)
device		jme		# JMicron JMC250 Gigabit/JMC260 Fast Ethernet
device		lge		# Level 1 LXT1001 gigabit Ethernet
device		msk		# Marvell/SysKonnect Yukon II Gigabit Ethernet
device		nfe		# nVidia nForce MCP on-board Ethernet
device		nge		# NatSemi DP83820 gigabit Ethernet
#device		nve		# nVidia nForce MCP on-board Ethernet Networking
device		pcn		# AMD Am79C97x PCI 10/100 (precedence over 'le')
device		re		# RealTek 8139C+/8169/8169S/8110S
device		rl		# RealTek 8129/8139
device		sf		# Adaptec AIC-6915 (``Starfire'')
device		sge		# Silicon Integrated Systems SiS190/191
device		sis		# Silicon Integrated Systems SiS 900/SiS 7016
device		sk		# SysKonnect SK-984x & SK-982x gigabit Ethernet
device		ste		# Sundance ST201 (D-Link DFE-550TX)
device		stge		# Sundance/Tamarack TC9021 gigabit Ethernet
device		tl		# Texas Instruments ThunderLAN
device		tx		# SMC EtherPower II (83c170 ``EPIC'')
device		vge		# VIA VT612x gigabit Ethernet
device		vr		# VIA Rhine, Rhine II
device		wb		# Winbond W89C840F
device		xl		# 3Com 3c90x (``Boomerang'', ``Cyclone'')

# ISA Ethernet NICs.  pccard NICs included.				ISA以太网网卡,PCCARD网卡包含在其中
device		cs		# Crystal Semiconductor CS89x0 NIC
# 'device ed' requires 'device miibus'					也是网卡类的不过好像很少见
device		ed		# NE[12]000, SMC Ultra, 3c503, DS8390 cards
device		ex		# Intel EtherExpress Pro/10 and Pro/10+
device		ep		# Etherlink III based cards
device		fe		# Fujitsu MB8696x based cards
device		ie		# EtherExpress 8/16, 3C507, StarLAN 10 etc.
device		sn		# SMC's 9000 series of Ethernet chips
device		xe		# Xircom pccard Ethernet

# Wireless NIC cards							无线网卡支持
device		wlan		# 802.11 support
options 	IEEE80211_DEBUG	# enable debug msgs
options 	IEEE80211_AMPDU_AGE # age frames in AMPDU reorder q's
options 	IEEE80211_SUPPORT_MESH	# enable 802.11s draft support
device		wlan_wep	# 802.11 WEP support
device		wlan_ccmp	# 802.11 CCMP support
device		wlan_tkip	# 802.11 TKIP support
device		wlan_amrr	# AMRR transmit rate control algorithm
device		an		# Aironet 4500/4800 802.11 wireless NICs.
device		ath		# Atheros pci/cardbus NIC's
device		ath_hal		# pci/cardbus chip support
options 	AH_SUPPORT_AR5416	# enable AR5416 tx/rx descriptors
device		ath_rate_sample	# SampleRate tx rate control for ath
device		ral		# Ralink Technology RT2500 wireless NICs.
device		wi		# WaveLAN/Intersil/Symbol 802.11 wireless NICs.
#device		wl		# Older non 802.11 Wavelan wireless NIC.

# Pseudo devices.							伪设备支持
device		loop		# Network loopback					// 网络回环
device		random		# Entropy device					// 不知道什么设备
device		ether		# Ethernet support					// 以太网支持
device		vlan		# 802.1Q VLAN support					// 802.1q VLAN 支持
device		tun		# Packet tunnel.					// PPPoE 好像会用这个设备
device		pty		# BSD-style compatibility pseudo ttys			// BSD风格的伪终端设备
device		md		# Memory "disks"					// 内存盘设备
device		gif		# IPv6 and IPv4 tunneling				// IP4 OR 6 设备的什么
device		faith		# IPv6-to-IPv4 relaying (translation)			// IPV6 转换 IPV4 的什么东西
device		firmware	# firmware assist module				// 

# The `bpf' device enables the Berkeley Packet Filter.
# Be aware of the administrative consequences of enabling this!
# Note that 'bpf' is required for DHCP.
device		bpf		# Berkeley packet filter				// 数据包过滤器??  还是不懂 默认好了

# USB support								USB支持
options 	USB_DEBUG	# enable debug msgs
device		uhci		# UHCI PCI->USB interface
device		ohci		# OHCI PCI->USB interface
device		ehci		# EHCI PCI->USB interface (USB 2.0)
device		usb		# USB Bus (required)
#device		udbp		# USB Double Bulk Pipe devices
device		uhid		# "Human Interface Devices"
device		ukbd		# Keyboard
device		ulpt		# Printer
device		umass		# Disks/Mass storage - Requires scbus and da
device		ums		# Mouse
device		urio		# Diamond Rio 500 MP3 player
# USB Serial devices							USB串行设备
device		u3g		# USB-based 3G modems (Option, Huawei, Sierra)
device		uark		# Technologies ARK3116 based serial adapters
device		ubsa		# Belkin F5U103 and compatible serial adapters
device		uftdi		# For FTDI usb serial adapters
device		uipaq		# Some WinCE based devices
device		uplcom		# Prolific PL-2303 serial adapters
device		uslcom		# SI Labs CP2101/CP2102 serial adapters
device		uvisor		# Visor and Palm devices
device		uvscom		# USB serial support for DDI pocket's PHS
# USB Ethernet, requires miibus						USB以太网,需要miibus
device		aue		# ADMtek USB Ethernet
device		axe		# ASIX Electronics USB Ethernet
device		cdce		# Generic USB over Ethernet
device		cue		# CATC USB Ethernet
device		kue		# Kawasaki LSI USB Ethernet
device		rue		# RealTek RTL8150 USB Ethernet
device		udav		# Davicom DM9601E USB
# USB Wireless								USB无线网卡
device		rum		# Ralink Technology RT2501USB wireless NICs
device		uath		# Atheros AR5523 wireless NICs
device		ural		# Ralink Technology RT2500USB wireless NICs
device		zyd		# ZyDAS zb1211/zb1211b wireless NICs

# FireWire support							防火墙支持
device		firewire	# FireWire bus code
#device		sbp		# SCSI over FireWire (Requires scbus and da)
device		fwe		# Ethernet over FireWire (non-standard!)
device		fwip		# IP over FireWire (RFC 2734,3146)
device		dcons		# Dumb console driver
device		dcons_crom	# Configuration ROM for dcons


No Comments 作者:小项-怪物猪 分类:临时文件

[buysz]$ time touch {1..10001}.txt

real 0m0.091s
user 0m0.024s
sys 0m0.064s

real 程序实际运行时间
user 用户态运行时间
sys 内核态运行时间

No Comments 作者:小项-怪物猪 分类:临时文件

[buysz]$ touch {1..100}
[buysz]$ ls
1 14 2 25 30 36 41 47 52 58 63 69 74 8 85 90 96
10 15 20 26 31 37 42 48 53 59 64 7 75 80 86 91 97
100 16 21 27 32 38 43 49 54 6 65 70 76 81 87 92 98
11 17 22 28 33 39 44 5 55 60 66 71 77 82 88 93 99
12 18 23 29 34 4 45 50 56 61 67 72 78 83 89 94
13 19 24 3 35 40 46 51 57 62 68 73 79 84 9 95

[buysz]$ wget http://www.52dpet.com/images/vip_{say,title}.gif
[buysz]$ ls
vip_say.gif vip_title.gif